Total number of questions
Child/adolescent and adult versions are available
Scoring and interpretation
Scores on the CES-D range from 0 to 60, in which higher scores suggest a greater presence of depressive symptoms. A score of 15 or higher is interpreted to indicate a risk for depression. However, screening for depression is a complex process and scoring a 15 or higher on the CES-D should be followed by further evaluation.
Reliability and validity
The scale has been found reliable (Cronbach’s alpha >.85) in previous research (e.g., Hann et. al., 1999).
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